A Study of the story "The Myth of Al-Naddaha " by Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq through social criticism

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD in Arabic Language and Literature, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin

2 Associate Professor of Arabic Language and Literature, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin



Introduction: New studies in the content analysis of fiction and novels are as extensive as critical approaches and fictional texts. In this regard, social criticism is a subset of author-centric or hypertext criticism. This method of criticism does not accept the spontaneous appearance of literature and believes that literature is formed in the heart of the society; in fact, social conditions direct the author, the work of art and the audience. Social criticism is a literary study in which historical and social works and evidence fulfill a literary intellectual mission for the reader. This is a mission based on the structure of artistic narratives. If we use literature as a social document for a particular society, we can introduce the general outlines of a historical society in a given period. This is because literature is not only a reflection of the social process but also broader because it is the essence of history. Thus, the analysis of the relationship between literature and society is the basis for the emergence of social criticism of literature, and this approach is based on the structure of literature and society. This means the reflection of social issues in the literary work through the author's intellectual, doctrinal or social perspective. Accordingly, "the interaction between society and literature has always been the focus of humanities researchers. Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq is one of the pioneers of contemporary literature in the field of horror, fantasy and science fiction and has been able to create perfect works of fantasy and horror. His works also take an opportunity to criticize the society. This research analyzes the story of "The Myth of Al Naddaha " based on a social approach as well as literary and critical sources, especially social criticism.
Methodology: Ahmed Khalid Tawfiq is a contemporary Egyptian writer and one of the pioneers of horror literature in the Arab world. In the 1990s, he wrote a collection entitled "The Supernatural", which received much attention in the Arab world. One of the stories in this series is "The Myth of Al-Naddaha" which has a scary atmosphere. The author discusses some of the social issues of the Egyptian society in the last century, specifically the villages of Egypt. This article aims to discuss the story of "The Myth of Al Naddaha " based on social criticism in an analytical-descriptive manner. Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq, in his story, tried to show the reader some aspects of the backwardness of the Egyptian society by expressing some social issues especially in the rural society of this country.
Results and Discussion: Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq is one of the pioneers of contemporary literature in the field of horror, fantasy and science fiction. He has created works full of fantasy and horror. On the side of his works, there is also room for criticism of the society. Based on a social approach and literary and critical sources, especially social criticism, this research, analyzes the story of "The Myth of Al-Naddaha" to answer the following questions: What social changes have taken place in the society during the author's period? What are the social problems that Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq has tried to clarify in his novel? What is the relationship between this novel and the society where the author has lived in?
Conclusion: In "The Myth of Al Naddahah", it is clear that Ahmad Khalid Tawfiq paid attention to social issues in a literary way. Although the author writes horror and science fiction, in this story, he reflects the most important social problems in the Egyptian villages and issues related to poverty, superstition, deprivation and class conflicts in his story. Tawfiq believes that reform in a rural society is possible by educating the people and making them literate. In his opinion, it is not possible to escape solving the problems, but one must stand against them and face them. The main character of the myth of Al Naddahah is based on a scientific logic. In fact, this scientific logic is one of the most important human achievements in the last century, which is reflected in this story. Tawfiq expresses social problems, which is of great importance. As an educated man in the society, has has dealt with the most important problems faced by the Egyptian villagers. Since the audience of his stories is teenagers and young people, he has been able to make them aware of the social consequences of superstitions and the dangers that society may pose. He reminds them of the rapid advancement of science.


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