Surrealism based on free thought with the centrality of the concepts of freedom and wonder: The views of contemporary Arab critics

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Professor of Arabic Language & Literature, Tehran University

2 Ph.D. of Arabic Language & Literature, Tehran University



Introduction: Influenced by the intellectual movements of the Renaissance, the flow of the contemporary literature moved away from the imitative frameworks in structure and content and found a new approach based on questioning and searching in the view of existence and the origin and end of life. In this environment, contemporary human beings seek to find the meaning and truth of objects and phenomena in accordance with free thought and astonishment against the manifestations of existence. They do this by reconsidering their existential dimensions as evidence of the world and redefining concepts such as intellect, existence and death. In search of the inner world of the universe and the supernatural and, meanwhile, considering the limitations of the intellect as well as the impotence of human beings, it is of  necessity to connect with the channels of existence and sources of absolute knowledge in order to understand and receive the truth and the inner things. Surrealism in the libertarian and truth-seeking school of concepts and phenomena, based on the avoidance of imitation, the creation of new meanings and relations as well as the creation of novel images, established a movement in contemporary literature, although this approach has not achieved much in discovering and understanding the truth. Considering that it has caused the liberation of thought and freedom of thought, it has led man on the path of seeking the truth and searching for the exact and deep meaning of concepts and connection with the original sources of perception that are necessary to discover and understand facts. The contemporary literature, a function of the Renaissance thought stream, underwent significant changes of content, concepts and structure, during which the approach of the works moved away from conventional themes and contents and unequivocally accepted imitative forms to a free attitude and return.
Methodology: Using a descriptive-analytical method and providing a correct definition of freethinking as well as a detailed account of the intellectual positions of the thinkers of the school of surrealism, the present research explains the original idea and its connection with the structure of surrealism. It also makes references to the opinions of critics in the field.
Results and Discussion: Considering the limitation of reason and the lack of power of man, independently, in understanding and receiving the truth and the inside things, it is necessary to make a link between the references and sources of "absolute knowledge" in the formation of the "zero point" of the mind and original thinking freed from external data. Surrealism lies in the nature of a freedom-loving school and the searching for the truth of concepts and phenomena, based on avoiding imitation and creating new meanings and relationships. The question of one’s Self and the question of the most basic concepts of existence in order to understand and receive the truth of life and discover the mysteries and inwardness of objects and phenomena are beyond what has been induced in the human mind. However, a change occurred in the schools of classicism and modernism, but its full manifestation was realized in the poetic works of Surrealism. The poets of this school, in searching and discovering the meanings and truths of existence, rejected the existing positions and definitions in order to get rid of the stagnation of the literary society. They also considered the questioning of astonishment against the manifestations of life and existence as the main element of literary creations. They understood the origin and the end of existence. The origin of this approach was to pay attention to the inner world and human instincts in relation to their deep and original needs, which has led contemporary human beings to review and recover their inner powers and redefine concepts such as existence, intellect, life and truth in order to reach beyond matter. It has led to the discovery of its secrets.
Conclusion: The approach of surrealism, in the sense that it frees thought from the circle of imitation, and freedom of thought, which is the point of commonality between pure rationality and surrealism, leads man on the path of truth-seeking and searching for the precise and deep meaning of concepts and connects him to the original sources of perception. It also provides an understanding of the facts of life. This study aims to explain the structure of the mind and the power of thinking as the only reference that man has to recognize and understand the meanings and concepts, on the one hand, and examine the structure, process and the origin of meanings and images on the other hand.


أحمد، محمّد فتوح، (1978)، الرمز و الرمزیة فی الشعر المعاصر، القاهرة: دارالمعارف.
أدونیس(علی‌أحمدسعید)، (1978)، زمن الشعر، بیروت: دارالعودة.
_________________، (1980)، فاتحة لنهایات القرن، بیروت: دارالفکر.
 (1983)، الثابت و المتحوّل، م3: بیروت: دارالعودة.
_____________، (1985)، الشعریة العربیة، بیروت: دارالآداب.
______________، (1995)، الصوفیة و السوریالیة، بیروت: دارالساقی.
امین­مقدسی، أبوالحسن و ادریس امینی، (1392)، «ملامح السریالیة فی شعر أدونیس»، مجلّۀ انجمن ایرانی زبان و ادبیات عربی، شماره­ی 28: 23ـ1
بارت، رولان، (1393)، درجه صفر نوشتار، ترجمه شیرین دخت دقیقیان، تهران: نشرهرمس.
برتلیمی، جان، (1970)، بحث فی علم الجمال، ترجمۀ أنورعبدالعزیز، مصر: دارنهضة.
بنیس، محمّد، (1990)، الشعر العربی الحدیث، بنیاته و إبدالاتها، الدارالبیضاء: دار توبقال للنشر.
جابر، یوسف حامد، (1991)، قضایا الإبداع فی قصیدة، دمشق: دارالحصاد.
الجابری، محمّدعابد، (1991)، التراث و الحداثة، بیروت: مرکز دراسات الوحدة العربیة.
_____________،(2002)، تکوین العقل العربی، بیروت: مرکز دراسات الوحدة العربیة.
الحاوی، ایلیا، (1983)، الرمزیة و السریالیة فی الشعر الغربی و العربی، بیروت: دارالثقافة.
حمودة، عبدالعزیز، (1998)، المرایا المحدّبة، الکویت: سلسلة عالم المعرفة.
الخال، یوسف، (1978)، الحداثة فی الشعر، بیروت: دارالطلیعة للطباعة والنشر.
سبیلا، محمّد و عبدالسلام بن عبدالعالی، (1996)، الحداثة(نصوص مختارة)، الدارالبیضاء: دار توبقال للنشر.
عبدالمولی، محمّد علاءالدین، (2006)، وهم الحداثة، دمشق: اتّحاد الکتّاب العرب.
عبید، محمّدصابر، (2001)، القصیدة العربیة الحدیثة بین البنیة الدلالیة والبنیة الإیقاعیة، دمشق: إتّحادالکتاب العرب.
القعود، عبدالرحمن بن محمّد، (2002)، الإبهام فی شعر الحداثة، الکویت: سلسلة عالم المعرفة.
المسیری، عبدالوهاب و فتحی التریکی، (2003)، الحداثة و ما بعد الحداثة، دمشق: دارالفکر.
المقالح، عبدالعزیز، (1985)، أزمة القصیدة العربیة، بیروت: دارالآداب.
المناصرة، عزّالدین، (1998)، قصیدة النثر، عمان: بیت الشعر الأردنی.
میسر، أورخان، (1978)، سریال، دمشق: إتّحاد الکتاب العرب.
فردینان، آلکیه، (1978)، فلسفة السریالیة، ترجمة وجیه العمر، دمشق: وزارة الثقافة.
موریه، سموئیل، شفیع السید و سعد مصلوح، (1986)، الشعر العربی الحدیث، تطور أشکاله و موضوعاته بتأثیر الأدب الغربی، ترجمه شفیع السید و سعد مصلوح، القاهره: دارالفکرالعربی.
موسوی شیرازی، سیدجمال، (1387)، «تأثیر سوررئالیسم بر تفکّر معاصر»، مجلّۀ پژوهش زبان­های خارجی، شماره­ی 50: 157ـ147.