آسیب‌شناسی باز‌نویسی داستان‌های کهن دینی برای کودکان و نوجوانان (نمونه موردپژوهانه: «هدیة الشمس» و«ملجأ الخائفین»)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

10.29252/mcal.2021.14602.2046

چکیده

در دنیایی که کودک و نوجوان از هر سو مورد تهاجم فرهنگی قرار گرفته‌ است، نفس کشیدن در فضای فرهنگ دینی و مذهبی در حکم حیات است. بدین منظور، نویسندگان جهت انتقال ارزش‌های فرهنگی مثبت کهن به نسل جدید، به بازنویسی سیره‌ها و شرح حال‌های پیامبران و امامان معصوم علیهم السلام برای کودکان، اقدام ورزیده‌اند. گاه دیده شده که برخی نویسندگان در بازنویسی یک اثر نتوانسته‌اند آن را از قالب تاریخی خود خارج کرده و به صورت داستانی جذاب به مخاطبان خردسال خود ارائه دهند. جستار حاضر با هدف آسیب-شناسی بازنویسی داستان‌های عربی برای کودکان، کوشیده است به روش توصیفی – تحلیلی، بایسته‌های بازنویسی متون کهن دینی را بررسی کرده و ضمن تطبیق این بایسته‌ها بر دو داستان «ملجأ الخائفین» و «هدیة الشمس» اختیارات بازنویس را در بکارگیری تکنیک‌های هنری، جهت جذاب کردن این داستان‌ها برای کودکان عرب‌زبان مورد واکاوی قرار دهد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد: برخی بازنویسان دانش کافی را در ساده‌سازی متون دینی دارا نبوده و در اغلب اوقات خود را پایبند جنبه تاریخی اثر کرده‌ و از به کار گرفتن برخی جنبه‌های هنری مثل سبک نگارشی خلاق، استفاده مؤثر از عناصر داستان و ... غفلت ورزیده‌اند. در این بین عدم هماهنگی بازنویس با تصویرگر در فرایند چاپ، تصویرگریِ این گونه داستان‌ها را، گاه با چالش‌های جدی مواجه کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploring of Rewriting Ancient Religious Stories for Children and Adolescents [Case study: “Malja al-khaefin” (shelter of frightened) and “Hedie al-shams” (gift of sun)

نویسنده [English]

  • Mostafa Mahdavi Ara
assistant Professor of Department of ArBIC Language and Literature, Hakim Sabzevari University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Rewriting and simplifying ancient religious texts is one of the most important branches of religious literature for children and adolescents. To this end, the authors have rewritten the biography of Shiite Infallibles (PBUH) in order to transmit cultural values ​​to new generations. "Oyoun Akhbar al-Reza" and "Manaqib al-Abi Talib" are among these works, which have been the source of many rewritten stories such as "Malja al-khaefin" and "Hedie al-shams" that have focused on the life of Imam Reza (PBUH). In recent years, following the expansion of Iran's cultural and social ties with Arab countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and so on, many of these stories have been published in Arabic in the form of a cultural package or tourism product presented to Arabic-speaking children who enter cities such as "Mashhad" and "Qom" for the purpose of religious tourism. The themes of most of these books are religious and seek to establish a link between the present and the past in order to inform the Arabic-speaking child of the glorious past of great Islamic civilization, create Islamic unity in the coming generations by enumerating the religious and religious commonalities as well as develop a positive religious attitude in young Arab audience. However, regarding the difficulties of these works, it has sometimes been observed that authors involved in the process of rewriting a work have not been able to take the work out of its historical form and present it to their young audiences as an interesting story. The present article intends to focus on the artistic problems of the stories rewritten in Arabic and to analyze the requirements for simplification of ancient religious texts on a case-by-case basis in two stories: "Malja al-khaefin" and "Hedie al-shams.
Methodology: The research method of this research is qualitative and descriptive using content analysis, which is done for objective and qualitative explanation of the content and concept of written texts in a systematic way. In the present article, the studied components are the rewritten text (including words and sentences), the elements of the story (including the angle of view, plot, character, time and place, etc.) and the visual effects of "Malja al-khaefin" and "Hedie al-shams” books, which have been rewritten for age groups (b) and (c) and derived from "Oyoun Akhbar al-Reza" written by Muhammad ibn Babawiyyah Qomi [also known as Sheikh Saduq (d. 381 AH)] and "Manaqib Al Abi Talib" written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Ali bin Shahr Ashob (died 588 AH). Excerpts from these two stories have been selected with an emphasis on the age group of audience, the publisher (with an emphasis on domestic publishers) and the language of the work (with an emphasis on being Arabic). After adapting the two rewritten stories to their original manuscript, information about the basics of rewriting children's stories were collected and classified as a library study using research sheets, and the advantages and limitations of rewriting in composition of this type of story were considered. Due to the fact that the visual effects of children's book are of special importance, the role of illustrator in preparation and attraction of these stories was also taken into account. The history of this type of research dates back to several decades ago; for example, Sahir Ahmad Mahfouz in a study entitled "Tabsit Adab al-Kebar L-atfal" (1991) has examined the complete works of Al-Kilani with respect to simplifying the stories of One Thousand and One Nights and Sinbad Bahri, etc.
Results and discussion: The research findings can be reviewed in two areas: structure (appearance of children's book) and content. Based on the criteria of rewriting and simplification of ancient texts, the rewriters in the two stories in question have been mostly historians rather than literary rewriters, which means that their reliance on historical and educational aspects of the child has deviated them from addressing the literary aspects of the story. Regarding the structure and appearance of books, the publishers and stakeholders in the field of children's books should pay more attention when choosing the type of paper, colors, coordination of text and image, and so on.
Conclusion: The drawbacks of rewriters in rewriting "Malja al-khaefin" and "Hedie al-shams” are that none of them has noticed the basic knowledge of their audience in the rewriting process and used words and sentences in the structure of the text outside the scope of Arabic-speaking child's knowledge. At the level of narration, too, Molla Aydi has been more dependent on the text than Mirzaei, so that his story is a historical account of the original text lacking the necessary dynamism and movement.
In the application of the elements of story, both authors have acted in the same way, and there is no change in angle of view or ups and downs in the plot. Mirzaei has managed to portray the personality traits of his protagonist somewhat more creatively only in the element of characterization, which seems to be due to lack of innocence of the main character in his story (Ryan). There was no significant change in the rewriting of stories in the element of time, which goes through a linear course throughout the narrative. However, Mirzaei has been able to act more dynamically than Molla Aydi in defining the place of events, and his descriptions of the place of the story are more sensitive and imaginative.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • religious stories
  • rewriting technologies
  • illustrating of religious texts
  • exploring