عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Critical discourse analysis is a type of examination that aims at the illegitimate use of power, domination, and inequality through writing and speech in a particular social or/and political context. Norman Fairclough, one of the leading experts in this field, believes that discourse analysis takes place in the stages of description, interpretation and explanation. Since literary texts, like political texts, have discourse-oriented structures, by studying and analyzing them critically, one can detect the author's ideology or thoughts. The reason for choosing the novel "Arus al-Zain" as a prominent work by Tayeb Saleh is that it establishes a good interaction between the author and the reader in the framework of social actions and institutions as well as the connection of power and ideology with the concept of discourse. The study also seeks to answer such questions as ‘To what extent is critical analysis of discourse based on Fairclough theory at the levels of description, interpretation, and explanation applicable to the novel The Baptism?’ and ‘How can this analysis bring the audience closer to the author's ideological thoughts?’
Methodology: In this article, an attempt is made to acquaint the reader with the religious, anti-traditional and idealistic tendencies of the author and to reveal the hidden truth by a descriptive-analytical method and through upgrading the analysis of the text from the level of description to the levels of interpretation and explanation. This shows the text beyond the novel and the underlying layers.
Results and Discussion: 1. Critical analysis of the discourse in the novel "Arus al-Zain" at the level of description:
By analyzing the structure of the text in the description stage, the hidden meanings of the words are revealed. This level of discourse critical analysis is organized around several main questions, the most important of which are the lexical titles, grammatical rules and textual structures. In this novel, grammatical words and constructions have an ideological burden, and the location of the novel suggests the confrontations that are always reflected in social structures. The novel begins with the discourse of the principal and the student, following the domination of those in power. This is while the discourse of most of its characters implies equality of power among them.
Critical analysis of the discourse in the novel "Arus al-Zain" at the level of interpretation:
The level of interpretation, which is the product of the dialectical connection of the formal features and the underlying knowledge of the interpreter's mind, recounts some of the presuppositions that exist in the minds of the people. At the same time, the theme of the story revolves around the wedding of Zain and Naeema. The novel has a logical process in telling the story and depicting the relationships among people, which is often based on the equality of power in rural society. At the level of interpretation, there are questions such as ‘What is the discourse participants’ interpretation of the linguistic and situational contexts?’, ‘What is the story?’, ‘Who is involved?’, ‘What is the relationship between them?’ and ‘What is the role of women in advancing the story?’
Critical analysis of the discourse in the novel "Arus al-Zain" at the level of explanation:
In this stage, the text is analyzed as a part of the process of social struggle in the context of power relations at various institutional, social and situational levels. These relations are effective in shaping the discourse. At the level of explaining, the story depicts the factors of pervasive ignorance and superstition and adherence to false traditions and male domination over women on the one hand and the material and cultural poverty of the Sudanese society on the other. In fact, the author wants the day to come when the women of the society, like Naeema, will stand against the dominant power of the society, that is, cultural and social ignorance.
Conclusion: The critical discourse analysis approach reflects the relationship between the author, the text and the reader and expresses the effects of text and situational context on discourse. The novel "Al-Zain" is a social-realistic novel that reproduces the bitter realities of a particular period in Sudan. Tayeb Saleh, the author, tries to portray beyond words and sentences. Critical discourse analysis of the novel allows the audience to examine it at various levels and to detect the deepest layers of structure and meaning in the novel for the ideology and attitudes of the author. This novel was studied at the three levels of description, interpretation and explanation. As it was found, since Tayyab Saleh created his work in the 1970s, the post-colonial era of Sudan, he has a realistic and critical view of the issues and problems of this period. In fact, by exploring the novel's discourse, he demonstrates a kind of social struggle against unhealthy and naturalized traditions. In the end, Saleh manifests himself in zain’s wedding as a symbol of an ideal society in which all the segments of people enjoy peaceful human relations with equal social rights and power of discourse.