عنوان مقاله [English]
Investigating the meta-fictional components in " Kid al-Nisa novel" by "Khairi Abd al-Javad"
Postmodernism should be considered a dramatic and revolutionary development that took place in the second half of the twentieth century in Europe and was influenced by the prevailing political and social conditions, and entered the world of humanities, arts and literature and had a significant impact on writers.
This influence on Western literature led to the formation of many literary works known as postmodern literature, of which the novel's share was very significant, and it followed that postmodern critique also found its way into the world of literature and art. meta-fiction can be considered as one of the most important features of postmodern literature, so much so that it has even been called a new postmodern achievement in the field of literature. Kheiri Abdel Jawad, a contemporary Egyptian writer, uses some of the features of meta-fiction in the novel Kid al-Nisa ', and brings his writing closer to the features of postmodern literature, especially meta-fiction. Accordingly, the present study intends to answer the following questions in addition to examining the components of meta-fiction in his work: 1. Can the novel "Kid al-Nisa '" be considered a meta-fictional novel? 2. What are the most important features of meta-fiction in this novel?
One of the most important features of postmodern literature is its meta-fictional aspect. The reason this style of writing is known as metanarrative is that the author of metanarratives, unlike the writers of previous stories, not only does not try to hide himself and show the real storytelling process, but also tries to make the reader Familiarize the unrealityof the story and do so by playing with traditional storytelling techniques. The main difference between meta-fiction and earlier storytelling methods lies in how the storyteller deals with the elements of storytelling.
Based on what has been said, the present article intends to study and critique the prominent components of meta-fiction in the novel Kidal Nisa written by Kheiri Abdoljavad in a descriptive-analytical manner.
Results and Discussion
The most important features of Kid al-nisa's novel can be mentioned as follows:
1. The narrator's explicit reference to storytelling
In the non-fiction style of storytelling, the author tries to figure out the events of the story in such a way that the reader does not doubt the reality of those events and for this reason, the author hides himself and his presence in the story. However, in postmodern literature and the meta-fiction writing style, explicitly stating that the author's work is at the heart of the work is one of the earliest meta-fiction tricks that the author may rely on in his story. In the novel "Kid al-nisa" we often encounter cases in which the author explicitly refers to the narrative of his work and directly or indirectly confronts the reader with the fact that he is actually reading a story written by him.
2. The presence of the author in the story and the conversation with the reader
The author's entry into the story and his direct conversation with the reader can be considered one of the main differences between postmodern stories and the way the story was written before; Because before this stage, the author did his best to hide behind the characters of the story and in this way, to assure the reader that his story is real. "Kheiri Abd al-javad" enters the events of the novel throughout his story and talks directly with the reader and asks him to accompany him throughout the story.
3. The presence of real characters in the story
By bringing real and historical characters in his story, the author tries to inform the reader about the unreality of the story text by including real elements in unreal elements, and thereby emphasize the fabrication of his story. Kheiri Abdoljavad used this method well in the novel Kid Al-Nisa 'and by mentioning the names of historical characters in the heart of his story and their interaction with the characters of the story, he was referring to a story of his work and its unreality.
4. The author speaks of his literary work
Kheiri Abdoljavad in the novel Kidalnasa and as it happened in the subject of the author's presence in the story, often enters into narrative events and sits directly in conversation with his audience or fictional characters.
By making a short circuit, he points out that the events of the novel are fabricated and unreal.
In addition, in some parts of the novel, he explicitly mentions the reason for writing this story and using the heritage of Egyptian Sufism in this regard.
5. Meta-fictional collage (fusion of fantasy and reality)
In this section, we are faced with cases such as: dreams and fantasies, story in story, allegorical reference to historical events and bringing news of newspapers and magazines in the novel. Kheiri Abdoljavad has used all these cases in the heart of his novel and has highlighted themeta-fictional aspects of his novel.
The present study was devoted to the trans-provincial aspects of the novel "Kid al Nisa" written by Kheiri Abdoljavad. In this regard, an attempt was made to examine the components of meta-fiction in this novel, to determine whether Kid al-nisa can be considered a meta-fiction novel or not. Examining Kidalnessa's novel, it was found that this novel has significant features of meta-fiction. Finally, it should be noted that although Kidalnessa's novel contains many meta-fiction, we also encounter some other components that are not consistent with the meta-fictional style. One of the most important of them is the existence of special components of magical realism that need to be studied separately, but what is clearly seen in this novel is a new way of storytelling in Arabic literature that can be pioneered by Kheiri Abdul Javad and by combining meta-fictional techniques and magical realism have been formed and introduced to Arabic literature.
Keywords: Postmodernism, Novel, Meta-Fiction, Khairy Abdol-javad, Kid Al-Nisa.