عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis of the novel “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” based on chaos theory
1- Introduction and goal
Chaos theory is one of the new scientific theories born of the developments of the modern era, which examines complex systems and has a direct relationship with mathematical studies and believes in the existence of order in chaos. After the development of studies on the theory of chaos, the field of application of this theory expanded and entered the human sciences as well. Literature was one of the fields that was influenced by this theory, and literary and critical studies influenced by this theory came to the conclusion that literary works are not free of chaos and disorder. Novel is one of the literary genres that is the best example for the application of chaos theory due to its dynamic and unstable system. Due to their different, innovative and complex narrative structure compared to classic and modern novels, postmodern novels are considered the most obvious literary texts that reflect a kind of order in chaos in their inner world. Some features of postmodern novels such as "accident, chaos, uncertainty, stereotyping, ambiguity and complexity" (Hasan, 2018: 106; Nowzari, 2011: 110) distinguish them from other novels. In these novels, the method of narration is non-linear and probability prevails over certainty.
Arab storytellers also turned to the postmodern narrative style and wrote countless works according to postmodern principles. Ibrahim Nasrallah is one of the most prominent postmodern story writers of Arabic literature who has used the postmodern narrative style in many of his works, and his novel “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” also has the most important postmodern components. With the non-linear narration of the events of this story and the multiple use of time failures, Nasrallah transforms the world inside his story into a world of a thousand of pieces, which, despite being multiplicity, chaos and disorder, has a certain order and coherence. The characters of this story are different parts of a whole unit whose actions affect each other's lifestyle and destiny. With the help of a special narrative method, Nasrallah wants to create a post-modern atmosphere in his story, to depict the wide-ranging developments of the new age in a metaphorical form and with the language of a novel, and to express the impact of human actions on the environment and the environment on humans, and also the perspective of the modern world. Based on the theory of chaos and its four characteristics, this article tries to analyze the formation of the world in the story of “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” and its relationship with the external and real world and the political, social, economic, cultural and environmental transformations in the new and ultra-developed world, and also the goals of the author to analyze the creation of such a postmodern story. This research tries to provide proper answers to these questions:
1- How does the application of chaos theory in the novel “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” highlight the postmodern components of this novel?
2- How does Nasrallah explain the rule of order in disorder in the novel “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya”?
The present study tries to analyze the narrative style of the novel “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” with a descriptive and analytical method, relying on the foundations of the scientific theory of chaos. It analyzes the reflection of the four characteristics of the chaos theory, i.e. the butterfly wing effect, strange attractions, self-immortal and dynamic adaptation in this novel and expresses their role in strengthening post-modern dimension.
Nasrallah creates a fragmented and postmodern world in the story of “Harb al-Kalb al-Thanya” and metaphorically refers to the extensive changes in the real world of the new age. The events of this chaotic world move in different and multidirectional channels, and countless and uncertain environmental, human and non-human causes, political issues and long-term social and economic plans of countries are repeated in a coherent framework and in the form of strange attractions in different forms and in time and space. They take on the effect of butterfly wing under the influence of sensitivity to their initial conditions, and lead to a big event called the second dog war.
4-Discussion and results
With the help of various time jumps, Nasrallah causes the death of time in the structure of this novel, and the characters and events of this novel show irregular and unexpected behaviors in a non-linear and unpredictable manner, for which no causal relationship and no outcome can be imagined, and this leads to the ambiguity and complexity of the novel and causes the audience to construct the world of this story and consider it as a symbol of the outside world and its characters and events as a creation of the author's mind and find it full of possibilities and without any certainty. By arranging disparate elements side by side extensively, Nasrallah draws a chaotic world whose actors and characters, despite their different nature and independent identity, have a desire to converge and identify with the whole and move in the direction of its goals. This convergence makes the components of this system adapt themselves to any climatic, social and political changes and the laws issued by the Castle System and achieve dynamic and recurring adaptation. From these irregularities, an ultimate and hidden order will emerge and the chaotic world of the story will continue to exist.
5-Key words: chaos theory, postmodern novel, Ebrahim Nasrallah, Harb al-Kalb al-Thania novel.