عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: One of the methods of modern literary criticism is literary criticism based on the science of personality psychology, which has used the views of Carl Gustav Jung and the followers of Jung in the school of postmodernism such as Jane Shinoda Bollen. Dealing with how to create a literary work, discovering the mental process of writers and poets, and exploring their psyche to understand the work they have created are among the fields of study of this method of literary criticism. The postmodernists developed different approaches to analytical psychology and acted in line with Jung's views; In such a way that the analysis of postpartum is not possible without considering Jung's psychology. Carl Jung, a Swiss psychologist, with his extensive research on the nature of the human mind, came up with two very important and effective ideas for literary criticism: the concept of the collective unconscious and the archetypal theory. Attracted motivations in the characters of literary works that often those characters themselves are not consciously aware of. Also, the accuracy of the mental processes of the characters, by examining their free association, changed the method of character analysis in literary criticism. In contrast to the subconscious mind of the individual, which contains the events, memories, and aspirations of one's life, the collective subconscious mind is the heritage of our ancestors' potential ways of representation (phenomena of the universe) and has no individual aspect but with all human beings. Perhaps it can be said that all living things are common. Jung's archetypal theory, which is closely related to the collective unconscious theory., is one of the most important theories in psychology and psychoanalysis, which has a special place in the discussion of personality analysis. Becoming, as well as through perception, is transformed and acquires its characteristics from the individual mentality in which it has occurred for whatever reason.
Archetypal critique focuses on general, repetitive, and conventional elements in the literature; Elements that cannot be explained in terms of tradition or historical influences. This critique studies each literary work as part of the whole literature. The basis of archetypal critique is that archetypes, images, characters, narrative schemes and typical themes and other phenomena of some kind of literature are present in all literary works "One of Jung's most influential figures in the field of personality archetype theory or personality typology is Shinoda Bolen. Bolen's theory and her personality types are one of the new typological approaches in the field of psychology and are not very well known even among Iranian psychologists and psychoanalysts. According to him, archetypes have a great impact on human life, behavior, culture and human civilization. Personality archetypes are directly related to ancient Greek mythology and are derived from the personalities of the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece. In fact, inspired by mythical gods and goddesses, he painted a series of different personality types for men and women.
Methodology: Influenced by the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece, Bolen presents seven female archetypes named Hera, Hastia, Artemis, Athena, Demeter, Aphrodite, Persephone, and eight male archetypes named Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Apollo, Ares, Hephaestus, and Hephaestus. Gives. The description of all these archetypes is out of the question and we will deal only with the cases that are in line with the characters of the novel under study.
Results and Discussion: In this article, the main characters of Afrah Laylat al-Qadr novel and also the sub-characters who were incidental during the novel and played a role in clarifying the aspects of the main characters are analyzed separately for men and women based on Bolen's personality model. The reason for choosing this novel to apply Bolen's theory is that in addition to the multiplicity of characters, their ups and downs in the novel can be analyzed and adapted based on Bolen archetypes; Therefore, this study seeks to answer these two fundamental questions:
What effect did the conditions of family, surroundings, environment and society have on the formation of the dominant archetype of characters?
After determining the dominant archetype of the characters in this novel, did the second and third archetypes exist for all of them?
Conclusion: In this regard, the novel Afrah Laylat al-Qadr by Abd al-Karim Nassif, which deals with the social and emotional relations of the two families, has been a suitable option for adapting Bolen's personality archetypes to the main characters of this novel. Based on Shinoda Bolen's theory and descriptive-analytical method, this research tries to identify the archetypes of each of the main male and female characters in the novel Afraha Laylat al-Qadr and the influence of factors such as family, society, environment, friends, cultural conditions and .. Also check. The result of the review of Afrah Laylat al-Qadr novel is that all seven archetypes of female personality and eight archetypes of male personality are present in all individuals, but the amount is different in the characters, and in the end there is only one archetype that has a high percentage. Dedicates itself and identifies the dominant archetype of that person.
Keywords: Jung, Shinoda Bolen, Archetypes of personality, the novel Afrah Leilat Al-Ghadr, Abd Al-Karim Nasif.