عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Resistance discourse is considered as one of the most important recent literary enterprises in the Arab world. This discourse can be considered an ingredient of human beings because, since the beginning of human life, there has been a battle between human and nature for survival under the shadow of which human beings have grown and followed the path of redemption. The poets and authors of Arab resistance who were observers of their country situation since the beginning of shaping their personalities, along with the courageous people of their own territory, have experience the pain and torture and consequently proposed resistance thoughts in their poems. Indeed, they have been preachers of resistance. Samih al-Qasem, poet of Palestinian resistance who has regarded resistance as an epigraph in writing his poets, depicts the conflicting space between the tyranny of Zionist regime and the resistance movement in Palestine. Samih has created an ode based on five symbolic characters who express their thoughts using conversation elements. Some of the characters are responsible for teaching resistance, and some others have usurping attitudes. Investigating how each of the characters behaves and what techniques they use to achieve their discourse and influence the readers requires psychological analysis. In fact, each of the characters in most situations utilizes emotional intelligence to achieve his or her goals. Emotional intelligence is a technique used in psychological analysis for the diagnosis of the external behavior of individuals.
This research aims to analyze different aspects of emotional intelligence in creation of resistance discourse. for each of the characters from a psychological perspective. The main question of this research is as follows. In order to run their discourse and to impress the readers more, how characters of the ode Hevariat al-Ar have used the Goldman model and what aspect of emotional intelligence have they used? The proposed hypothesis for this question is based on the discourse structure of the ode, It seems that the activators in this ode do the discourse not only to utilize self-awareness and self-management but also pay attention to the managing of others’ behavior.
Methodology: The main approach of this research is descriptive-analytic, and its theoretical approach is based on psychological emotional intelligence. In this research, at first, different steps of creating discourse by the characters of the ode are investigated. Afterwards, in each step, various aspects of emotional intelligence are analyzed based on the Goldman model. The ode Hevariat al-Ar” is chosen as the subject of this research due to its specific discourse structure.
Results and Discussion: Discourse in the ode Hevariat al-Ar shows that it is comprised of five characters (including servant, slave, oziris, governor and poet), who use their particular emotional intelligence to accomplish the poet’s goal. Self-awareness is the recognition of the excitements that an individual senses and their reasons. The discourse between the characters of the ode Hevariat al-Ar is illustrative of each character’s awareness of his emotions and the resulting behavior of those emotions. Self-management is the ability to confront the negative attitudes and to create opportunities for making decisions and alter those attitudes to positive ones. Samih al-Qasem uses complete inhibition to revive the sense of trust and responsibility among his readers and creates contextual innovation. In other words, he establishes resistance discourse against the dominated regime. Inherent motivation is the redirecting and navigating of emotions and excitements towards the goal. The most important inherent motivations that force the actors in the ode to divulge external behavior is the motivation for “resistance and seeking martyrdom” among people of resistance in Palestine and the motivation of “oppression and tyranny” among people in the class of tyranny. Social awareness means being sensitive to others’ feelings and interests and tolerating their points of view. The management of relationships with people is also the ability to recognize people and sympathize with them. Each of the characters in this ode, in addition to controlling their own behavior, pays attention to sympathizing with others and managing their relationships with others (empathy). The poet navigates his emotions oriented towards his Palestinian compatriots and finds himself very close to them.
Conclusion: According to the discourse conversations between the characters in the ode Hevariat al-Ar”, we can conclude that all the characters follow four steps including meaning ableism, qualitative ableism, flavorist ableism and action. Moreover, they utilize five dimensions of emotional intelligence proposed by Goldman including self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, sociability and management of interacting with others. Therefore, before the characters enter the level of managing the emotions of their readers, they first control their emotions. Afterwards, with different inherent motivations, they enter the level of discourse and finally declare their awareness of their surroundings and control the interaction between themselves and the readers. Some characters, like Khadem and Hakem, convey the discourse of the tyrants and make the reader hate this class of people. Some others like poet Osiris and the slave depict the discourse of the oppressed people in Palestine, preach resistance, and actually reveal the discourse of a permanent battle between Authoritarians and the resistance movement.