عنوان مقاله [English]
Two theories of post-colonial and Caravanalism have close relationship in aspect of exploration of antipathies and linguistic resistance structures in literature text. While post-colonial theorists try to explore directions and components of Hegemonic domination of literature texts and make voice of in margin people as basis of literary criticism, Mikhail Bakhtin explains Caravanalism elements as a mechanism for discrediting of absolute power’ single voice discourse and appearance of a type of polyphony in authoritarian structure. Based on this theory, this research tries to explore components of Bakhtin’s Caravanalism theory include: Carnival celebrations, Irony, Grotesque and joke making machine in quintuple of Cities of Salt, written by Abdul Rahman Munif, which is a pseudo-historical narration of oil appearance process in Saudi Arabia peninsula and transformation of colonial approach (from classic to modern) and to examine its performance in offering of conflicting antithesis and discrediting of single voice discourse of power considering hypothesis of this theory.
The theoretical basis of this research is Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of carnivalism and its elements such as carnival celebrations, irony, grotesque and joke making machine which he has discussed in detail in his book “Rabelais and His World”. According to Bakhtin, carnival festivals, comic shows and their related traditions and religions had very important position in view of medieval human life. This event brought to the fore a world quite different from the real world, and highlighted the informal, secular, and non-political aspects of human relations. In other words, these carnival festivities, in which all members of the community participated, depicted life and the world outside the rigid formal framework. In this book, Bakhtin seeks to interpret laughter in medieval popular culture as a means of resisting and overcoming formal cultural ideas, symbols, and aspirations. According to his belief, carnival festivities created an opportunity for the oppressed medieval man to speak out against the monopoly of the dictators and to express his protest in the form of humor.
Discussion and Results
In Cities of Salt, Abdul Rahman Munif depicts the sudden transformation of the Arab countries. Imposed and selective modernization and the sudden injection of technological achievements and the sudden transformation of Bedouin areas into large cities have led to the confrontation of tradition and modernity and the fragmentation of society. At the level of political power, the vast oil wealth has transformed the nature of hegemony and changed the repressive apparatus from traditional from to modern form in a purposeful and organized manner using modern technology. In contrast of this monophony and the twin domination of colonialism/tyranny, the reader hears the carnivalized voice of the lower classes people, which - in carnival situations-invalidates the discourse of power. The authors of this study have examined the manifestations of this carnivalized voice in the following four components which are: carnival celebrations, irony, grotesque and joke making machine.
In the first part, carnival celebrations and their function in discrediting the monophonic discourse of colonialism / tyranny are examined. In these celebrations and ceremonies, the author creates situations in which the hierarchy of the power pyramid collapses and those in power (tyrants and colonialists) align themselves with ordinary people. This collapse of the pyramid of power causes to oppressed people express the harshest criticisms in the form of humor and jokes. In fact, at this feast, the common people have the opportunity to make inferior position with the superior position of the colonialists and tyrants by means of ridiculous behaviors and verbal jokes.
In the second part, the authors discuss the function of the irony concept in delegitimizing the discourse of domination. Ironically, and in general, conflicting dual confrontations emerge when discourse of power has a violent and repressive presence. In Cities of Salt, we see ironic situations more in episodes in which tyrants have a strong and repressive presence. In fact, in the shadow of the brutal and repressive presence of tyranny, which incurs the cost of confrontation and may even cost people their lives, the carnival laughter takes on an ironic color and the narrator and story characters express their protest against the current situation by a kind of hidden and ironic ridicule. In these spaces, the author discredits the harsh presence of tyrants by creating ironic situations and presenting scenes that are contradictory and hilarious to the status quo.
In the third section, the authors discuss the grotesque concept and its function in discrediting the monophonic discourse of absolute power. In Cities of Salt, we see the grotesque manifestation and its function in the de-authorization of characters in the description of authoritarian personalities. In describing such characters, Munif creates a grotesque atmosphere that both laughs and escapes, by pointing to the animalistic behaviors. These grotesque images are done with different mechanisms include: the desire of authoritarian personalities for sexual desires, presenting an animal image of those in power, and emphasizing on the earthly and tangible and even obscene qualities of daily life (urination and Stools, saliva and sputum, nasal discharge, etc.).
In the fourth section, the authors deal with the popular joke making Machin and its role in discrediting the discourse of colonialism and tyranny. In this section, the lower class people try to carry out a kind of harmless and cheap resistance by means of mechanisms such as putting funny and ridiculous titles on those in power, telling jokes about the colonialists, as well as making fun of them.
Conclusions of this research can be summarized into two theoretical and practical categories: firstly, caranavalism and its components can open new horizons to post-colonial studies, and also can be basis of reconstruction of domination directions and for centralization of language and culture of domination system; and secondly, Abdul Rahman Munif in quintuple of Cities of Salt, put protest discourse of in margin and lower people in contrast with official and rough discourse of domination/despotism by means of creation of carnival situation, Ironic images, Grotesque and joke, and discredited its created legitimacy in carnival situation.