عنوان مقاله [English]
Analysis of grotesque effects in the novel The Game of Forgetting by the Bakhtin Approach
Grotesque, the artistic-literary discourse, makes technical arrangements for the creation of heterogeneous emotional mixtures and the creation of all-encompassing uncertainty, the decipherment of his long-awaited scenes, leading to the technical and content enrichment of the work. The grotesque is at the forefront of the battle with the certainty and it’s the herald of an unfinished world. In the light of the philosophical content of its worldview, it reveals the blunt face of the unattainable world in the form of a simultaneous representation of the two-dimensional contrasts. Bakhtinian grotesque approach focuses on the merry roots of popular literature, in the form of features: inconsistency of dual contrasts, exaggeration, corporeal centeredness, degrading, aggressive language, and absolute anomalies, It has undeniable benefits by enabling the recognition of the capabilities of the narrative text by objectifying their truth-seeking worldview and anti-dogma libertarianism.
The novel “The Game of Forgetting”, by the Moroccan “Mohamed Barrada”, is a center of experimentalism on the arrangements of polyphonic literature, especially the grotesque, and has created significant prototypes in this field. Literary representation of grotesque characteristics the following grotesque manifestations: disharmony, abnormal corporeal centeredness, grotesque atmosphere, erotic abnormalities, profanity and billingsgate, and the theme of madness were examined and analyzed in response to the prevailing spirit of one-sidedness and illusion of omniscience.
Mohamed Barrada, a pioneering author whose novels are indebted to Bakhtin's discourse theory, recognizes the carnival-grotesque tradition in his laudatory critiques, He has adapted some of the preparations of grotesque realism to his masterpiece of narrative, and has paved the way for the benefit of the rich but veiled Moroccan popular culture.
he engaged in literary modeling under the sub-categories of dialogism, For example, he has attempted to create scences focusing on Grotesque wonders, as well as the philosophical and ideological dimensions considered by Bakhtin, And his creative scenes and images each somehow pursue the goals of grotesque discourse. Barrada is also one of the Arab exprimentalist novelists, and Grotesque's discourse, intersects with the new exprimentalist novel, on the subject of border crossing and transgression, norm-breaking, non-dissemination of consideration, embracing with all possibilities and the rejection of pre-determined categories.
The main question of this paper is how grotesque elements and images have been effective in inducing the ideas of truth-seeking and exposing grotesque discourse and adapting the concepts of pluralism and confronting the serious tone of the Domineering official culture.
In pursuing the research question, we first identified the theoretical topics of grotesque and then examined the grotesque effects of “The Game of Forgetting” and analyzed the inductive concepts of its examples.
In analyzing grotesque examples, we have followed a descriptive-analytical method based on library data processing, and our focus has been on Bakhtin's grotesque approach, based on the merry roots of popular literature, and in the form of features: inconsistency of dual contrasts, exaggeration, corporeal centeredness, degrading, aggressive language, and absolute anomalies, and by applying the method of technical critique and carefully examining the necessary techniques of a particular literary genre, we have sought the literary representation of grotesque features in the form of grotesque manifestations, including: disharmony, abnormal corporeal centeredness, grotesque atmosphere, erotic abnormalities, profanity and billingsgate, and the theme of madness.
Results and Discussion:
Examining the examples of each of the grotesque features of “The Game of Forgetting”, we find:
1. Expressing contradictions in the behavior and movements of the characters or the state of phenomena and being in a situation inconsistent with their position, in Barrada’s work, is a solution to create a heterogeneous and challenging mixture of emotions to discuss the idea of a fluid and possible world by rejecting necessary principles It is undisputedness and completeness.
2. In the abnormal corporeal centeredness and extreme attention to the lower parts of the limbs, as the ways of communication with the earth and the material world, the principle of degradation is considered by the author to question the pretense of excellence and sanctity and deliberately highlighted distinctions and replaces the idea of equality and universal anti-class freedom.
3. In Barrada’s grotesque atmospheres, the induction of negative, harassing, and anxious emotional states, In addition to creating a heterogeneous emotional duality and laying the groundwork for grotesque indecisiveness and indecision, somehow aims to normalize our view of the second half of life, the death, which is followed by a new birth. Sometimes this is done in the realm of sacred matters, such as the example of the Mushatfah.
4. Erotic abnormalities are the culmination of the construction of emotional dichotomies and are tied to killing in order to intensify them. Another purpose - according to the narrator's groundworks in order to to raise the examples - is to set aside considerations in this area and expose it as a real part of life that requires a logical design to find a solution like other phenomena and should be known. That secrecy, as claimed by chaste purposes, is not the solution.
5. The vilifications in language of grotesque, by connecting the object to the lower extremities, acquires a destructive-reconstructive nature and so-called carnivalous, and with the help of the capabilities of the inferior culture, unlike the official repressive culture, creates creativity and behind the profanity, the liberating truth of freedom, Has lies. The deliberate choice of blasphemous concepts indicates a deliberate massification of the mass of ideas and images distorts the whole truth considered to be complete.
Thus Barrada, of an exemplary spirit of intolerance and rejection, seeks to recall the excluded elements and to combine heterogeneous elements and that allows another view of a world with a more orderly structure under the concept of relativity. And by projecting any indisputable ideas and dogmatic actions, and believing in the boundaries crossing and coexistence of phenomena, heralds high decisive values such as freedom, happiness, justice, accepting others, rejection of dogmatism and reconcile all the parts of the world again.
Keywords: Grotesque, The Game of Forgetting, Degradation, Corporeal Centeredness, Billingsgate.