عنوان مقاله [English]
Tariq Bakari (1988) is an activist in the field of fiction in Morocco, whose main literary activities are social novels, in each of which, social issues and problems are dealt with intelligently. The novel " Al-Qatil al-Ashqar " is one of her outstanding works in which the author has meticulously portrayed the bitter truths of a social environment full of corruption and restraint and the burden of her society.. In this work, she tries to show the influence of two important family environments and the social environment in the formation of her fictional characters, who are in fact a picture of the real characters of the social environment. Obviously, in any story, the "characters" play a major role in recounting the events and their sequence; For this reason, paying attention to the actions and behavior of the characters opens the reader's mind to a door of ideas hidden in the writer's mind. Hence, with the help of the basics of psychology, it is better to understand the hidden and deep layers of the characters and the causes of their behavior; Therefore, one of the most important areas of psychological analysis of characters is the analysis and critique of literary texts, especially fiction and novels. Because, in this approach, based on different theories of psychology and its greats, it is possible to analyze the various and even contradictory behaviors of the characters and people in the story. In this regard, the psychological theory of "interaction behavior analysis" is one of these important and practical theories that can be used to evaluate the psychological aspects of the characters, especially in the story. This theory is often used to analyze and analyze human behavior. This study, for the first time, examines and analyzes the novel " Al-Qatil al-Ashqar " from the perspective of an interdisciplinary study method from the perspective of a coherent psychology. This is important in that the characters and their interactions form a major part of Eric Byrne's theory as well as the atmosphere of the present story. In addition, by examining the present novel based on the views of Eric Byrne, one can understand the psychological dimension of the characters and the reasons for some of their actions and in contrast to other people; Therefore, addressing such issues can be an effective step in understanding the subtleties and details of literary works in general and the present novel in part. The purpose of this article is to pay close attention to the formation of interrelationships and the structural pathology of sensual states (parent, adult, child) in the story of " Al-Qatil al-Ashqar " and to answer the following questions:
-According to the theory of "reciprocal behavior" analysis, the behavior of the characters in this story is rooted in which mental and educational states?
- The chain of relations between the characters in the interaction with each other is based on which mental states?
-To what extent is the analysis of "reciprocal behavior" successful in identifying the psychological aspects of the characters in the story?
In the present article ، the descriptive-analytical method and based on the theoretical foundations of "Eric Byrne's analysis of reciprocal behavior" has been studied and analyzed by the novel "The Killer of Ashqar". Research materials of this research are provided by referring to libraries, related dissertations, reputable domestic and foreign journals as well as reputable domestic and foreign websites.
Results and Discussion
The results show that the characters of the novel " Al-Qatil al-Ashqar " in the form of cases and except in a few cases, are influenced by the dimension of "parent" and therefore, based on mental states, anxiety, conflict and fear. They treat each other. Of course, each of these factors causes itself to change and move from one area to another. In addition, the study of the characters and the analysis of the existential states of "I" in them, as well as the analysis of their mutual behavior, show that the more psychologically close the characters are, the more they are in a complementary relationship with each other. And the farther apart they are, the farther apart they are. In general, it can be said that the author seeks to express and create states of anxiety and tie it to some of the moral anomalies of society, and since in the society in question, most behaviors are not based on rational behavior but on norms. The ruler of the society takes place, therefore, the dominance of the parental spirits over the characters of the story prevails.