عنوان مقاله [English]
Examining image schemas in Nizar Qabbani's poems (based on Johnson's theory)
Cognitive psychologists believe that the process of cognition in the mind is based on a schema that determines the way the mind works, like a network consisting of awareness and knowledge, and these schemas are the result of our experiences with the outside world, and we express them in language. We transfer ourselves and are considered one of the most important concepts in the science of semantics. These schemas were first proposed by Johnson. According to Johnson's theory, image schemas appear in three main axes: volume, movement and power.
Image schemas, which is the subject of the present research, are actually one of the most important topics in cognitive linguistics. Cognitive psychologists believe that the process of cognition in the mind is based on a schema, and like a network created from the structures of awareness and knowledge, it determines the way the mind works. This schema is the context that needed to give meaning to experience, personal event, situation or linguistic element. Mark Johnson was the first person to use this term in linguistics. He believed that human body movements and their sensory connection with the outside world follow repetitive patterns called visual schemas. in semantics, a word or sentence can be examined from different aspects. This science claims that in analyzing the meaning of these words or sentences, attention should be paid to conceptualization. Conceptual metaphor is also one of the important topics in the science of cognitive semantics, and because of the deep relationship that this theory has with human knowledge and his daily experiences, it has been the focus of linguists. This metaphor actually establishes a connection between two objective and abstract domains, the objective domain is the origin domain, and the abstract domain is the destination domain, which is expressed based on the elements in the origin domain. Nizar Qabbani was born on 30 April 1998, in Damascus; he started writing poetry at the age of 16. He was mostly known for his love poems and women were the main subject of his poems, but due to the defeat and retreat of the Arabs, the poet gave up writing love poems and turned to writing political poems. This research aims to investigate the use of image schemas according to Johnson's theory in three main axes: volume, movement and power in Nizar Qabbani's poems.
The research method in this article is descriptive-analytical, which examines the poet's poems based on Johnson's theory.
Results and Discussion
Schemas are the result of our experiences with the outside world, which we transfer to our language, the subject of schemas is associated with physical experience, and corporatization has a direct effect on the conceptual structure of humans. In fact, image schemas have a meaningful and materialized structure that results the movements of the human body in three-dimensional space are perceptual interactions and how to deal with objects. Power schemas appear when there is a resistance force and an obstacle against the movement, the abstract plan of dealing with problems and obstacles is to provide states and qualities for phenomena that do not have physical obstacles in one's mind. Whenever there is talk of prohibition, there is talk of the power schema, in these verses there is also the first type of power schema, because the existence of an authoritarian government in the society of that time was considered as a barrier that prevented people from doing many things and continuing their path. He stopped them in such a way that he deprived them of a good night's sleep. Volumetric schemas have been created from the assumption between mental phenomena and human experiences of being in environments such as rooms, beds, etc. this type of schema makes it possible to visualize containers by simulating the placement of objects inside each other. Nizar Qabbani cannot do anything because of the prohibitions that his cruel society has created for him, and as he stated in these verses, (as if I have been in a closed space), here the poet is considered as an object that is placed in a closed space. Movement schema is the result of human experience of his own movement and with other objects. This movement has a starting point called origin and an end point called destination. What is placed between these two points is called the path. Based on this, the movement from point (a) to point (b) must pass through all the points that are on the path from (a) to (b), and another point is that the paths have directions. In addition, each path is associated with the passage of a certain amount of time.
The results obtained in the analysis section indicate that the use of visual schemas helps the audience to understand the meaning and concept of the poem, and in this way they can better understand and understand the meaning of the poet or the author of the text. Nizar Qabbani has written most of his poems in a political manner and in the direction of social justice and freedom from the oppression of oppressors and to remove the homeland from the hands of foreigners, and he emphasizes this issue in many places in his writings. According to the examination of the mentioned examples, it can be clearly seen that a significant amount of schemes is used in Nizar Qabbani's poems and among the schemes created by Johnson (power, volume and movement); the power scheme has the largest share in the poems. Yes, it is of the first type, i.e. a barrier created in the path of movement prevents the continuation of the path, and only one case of the third type is seen in this research. After this scheme, the volumetric scheme and then the movement scheme are placed in the next stages in Nizar's poems.
Keywords: Johnson's visual schemas, Power schema, Movement schema, Nezar Qabbani.